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Migration of Bisphenols and BADGE from Epoxy Resin into Food

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Cans, twist-off caps and food containers are often coated inside with epoxy resin to reduce adverse interactions and spoilage of food, e.g. fish, fruits or vegetables.

Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and novolac glycidyl ethers (NOGE) result from polimerisation process of epoxy resin out of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) or novolac and not fully chemically bound monomers may migrate into food.

After high values of BADGE have been detected in oil infusions from canned fish during analyses in Switzerland and Germany, the Federal Institute for Consumer Health and Veterinary Medicine (BgVV) called on the manufacturers to take steps for minimisation of food contamination by technological measures. The proven migration of BADGE, BFDGE, NOGE and their derivatives into food demands a toxicological evaluation for the estimation of possible human health risks.

In November 2005, the European Commission (Regulation (EC) No 1895/2005) established specific migration limits (SML's) for epoxid derivatives. For the sum of BADGE and its hydrolised derivatives a SML of 9 mg/kg food and for the BADGE chlorohydrins (BADGE HCl, BADGE 2 HCl und BADGE H2O HCl) a SML of 1 mg/kg of food was set. The use of BFDGE and NOGE in the manufacture of food contact materials is prohibited due to the absence of toxicological data.

Regulation (EU) No 10/2011 determines the quantity of bisphenol A, which is tolerated to migrate from food commodities such as packaging into food. The SML amounts to 600 μg BPA per kg food. Guideline 2011/8/EU prohibits the use of bisphenol A for the production of baby bottles made of polycarbonate.

Eurofins offers the analysis of bisphenol A , bisphenol F, BADGE, BFDGE and NOGE in food and food commodities. For food ultra-low limits of quantification can be given, such as 1 µg/kg for BPA and 2 µg/kg for BADGE.